Geotechnical engineering plays a key role in all civil engineering projects, since the built environment is based on or in the ground. Geotechnical engineering is the application of the science of soil and rock mechanics, engineering geology and other related disciplines to civil engineering design and construction, and to the preservation and enhancement of the environment. Avoiding geotechnical failures safe lives and costs.
Soil is a natural material having no uniform strength specifications. Because of natural heterogeneity of soil conditions and the complexities of soil behaviour large uncertainties and risks exist. The profession traditionally uses to large extend empirical solutions and regularly safety factors of 50% to account for unforeseen circumstances. Innovations will help in optimising design for construction and maintenance of buildings and infrastructures.